Obverse: "Castle within circle surounded by lettering" +. Reverse: "Cross within circle surounded by lettering". The Coin: A very pleasing & quite RARE Silver denaro coin.
Well struck, in nice shape. NGC graded UNC, It saw little use and touched.
Few hands throughout history before it found a place to wait out the centuries. As grading is subjective please Judge the coin photos to determine this for yourself. The Most Serene Republic of Genoa Italian: Repubblica di Genova, Ligurian. Repúbrica de Zêna was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from 1005. Onward, throughout the Middle Ages.
The Republic was established to Genoa, Venice, and Pisa. This enabled the Genoese to seize and monopolize trade in the western Mediterranean Sea. By 1100, the Genoese had won the war against Pisa and seized most of its territory. In its early centuries, Genoa was already becoming an important trading city and its power.Genoa started expanding during the First Crusade, launched by the Holy Roman Empire. The temporary weakness that overtook the Germans when the Holy Roman emperor was killed in battle against. The Turkish Sultanate, the Genoese pushed northward and defeated a large German force near Savoy. This allowed for a swift Genoese advance that drove opposing forces as far as Switzerland, conquering all territory. These Genoese expansions alarmed the other Italian states forming under the nominal rule of the Holy Roman. Empire in Italy, and they formed a Coalition of Tuscany to oppose more Genoese conquests. In 1123, the Genoese Doge Vilhent Boccoli fought and defeated the Venetian Republic in a war over northeastern Italy. This would lead to a future of rivalry with the Republic of Venice well into the 1300's. Fought and subdued the Tuscany Coalition, as many Italians were hoping for a unified state to prevent direct occupation. Nd control by the Holy Roman Empire. The German emperors themselves recognized Genoa as an independent and. Throughout the 1200's, the Genoese were the closest to a united Italy as could be achieved.
All territory north of the Papal States had fallen into the hands of the republic, as well as all Italian lands west of Venice. The Genoese also exercised control over Corsica and Sardinia. By 1298, however, the Republic of Genoa had experienced serious decline. The Venetians had taken most of the trade. And the old central Italian states longed to be free from Genoese rule.A series of greedy and foolish doges also corrupted. The republic, emptied the national treasury, and weakened it further. To the praise of many Italians, the Genoese had stood up to the political monsters of the Holy Roman Empire and had. Achieved the status of a symbol for Italian patriotism. When the Genoese had conquered northern Italy, many Italians. Had hoped this would be a step closer to Italian unification. To their delight, the Genoese had also declared them liberated. And free from German claims and influences. However, as doges became more and more tyrannical, Italians became.
Alarmed at the growing instability under the Genoese. Genoese claims to Switzerland had also led to costly wars with the. Many Italians begin to feel that the Genoese cared only for their own expansion and political gain. By 1304, a confederation of Austrian, and German nobles had defeated the Genoese and captured the doge in battle.With the execution of the doge, Genoese claims to Swiss territory were dismissed. A series of losing wars followed as. The Holy Roman emperor regained much territory and drove the Genoese forces to the city of Genoa itself. The fall of Genoa in March of 1306 is considered to be an end of an era of Genoese dominance over Italy. Throughout the mid 1300's, Genoa regained a measure of its former fortune as they were ruled by a doge from Corsica. And Sardinia, which they continued to maintain. Northern Italy also remained under their control. Began to establish trading colonies in Constantinople and Trebizond, both along the silk route, as early as 1333. The decline of Venice and the consistent rivalry with the Venetians won out when the Venetians lost all of their Balkan. Footholds to the king of Hungary and the Byzantine emperor. Croatia was the final Venetian province to fall, in 1340.
After the growing Byzantine Empire supplanted the declining Hungary in the early 1400's, the Genoese formed an. Alliance with the Greeks in order to crush Venice between them. Several royal marriages brought the Byzantine imperial dynasties closer to the doge, and the Genoese promised they. Would behave as honorable allies in times of peace and honorable enemies should it ever come to war. However, the doge of Genoa lived only so long to win this victory when his assassination at the hands of the Holy Roman.Empire threw the republic into chaos. Loss of Tuscany and Decline Many Italians had long waited for the moment to overthrow Genoese suppression and revive nationalism in the form. Of independent states, and the murder of the doge and disputes over his position caused the Italians of northern Italy t.
O rise up in revolt against the Republic of Genoa. Together, they formed a loose confederation that ousted the Genoese. And formed the Duchy of Tuscany, presided over by an independent duke.The duchy was short-lived as the Byzantine Empire saw its chance to expand into Italy in the midst of the confusion. While they supported several pretenders to the title of doge over Genoa, they absorbed the Duchy of Tuscany. Attacking it with such vicious determination and overwhelming force that the unstable and newly installed duchy was. Quickly overthrown after a 400-day war.
The Greeks initially hoped to expand farther westward and absorb Genoa itself. But a rising new political faction led by a relative of the previous doge claimed the throne and re-established the. Shrunken republic after recapturing the city itself from the Germans. Revival and Peace The Byzantines welcomed the re-establishment of Genoa, and provided support and congratulations to the new. Doge and the restored republic.
However, relations remained strained as the Genoese demanded the return of. When the Greeks refused, several Genoese armies amassed on the border and prepared. The Byzantines mowed down the Genoese forces with aggressive tactics and sheer numbers. The Genoese invasion ended in late 1435, when the doge, seeing the odds stacked against him and hopelessly. Outnumbered by the Greeks on the field, retreated to Corsica.
Byzantium itself refused to war any further with. Genoa; it's force was spent. Throughout the 1470's, the Byzantine Empire developed better relations and strategic. Alliances with the Genoese, farther westward expansion was instead directed at the Holy Roman Empire, resulting.In the capture of Vienna and the annexation of Austria. The Byzantine emperors adopted the title'Protector and. Imperator of Helvetia', although Greek claims over Switzerland were largely nominal. Genoese traders have since been granted exclusive trading rights in Constantinople and have established a colony. They currently dominate most of the trade in the Mediterranean through a shrewd business.
Partnership with the Byzantine Empire to turn trade in the sea into a joint Greek-Italian monopoly. Photos are of the actual coin that you will receive.. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity, issued by the owner and Art-antique enthusiast that has identified.
Thousands ancient coins and has provided them with the same guarantee. You will be very happy. Additionally, the coin is inside it's own protective coin flip (holder). Is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued.
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